I am an experimental physicist studying
pattern formation and dynamics in a variety of systems. Pattern formation
problems are ideally suited to student participation since the problems
are inherently visual in nature. Despite the use of frame grabbers, image
processing packages, electronics, and optics systems, there is always something
I am particularly interested
study of granular materials such as sand, seed, and powdered
metals. My current research projects include the study of
granular gases and a study of how low aspect ratio grains jam in
featureless vertical channels. On a different topic, my
students and I recently completed a laboratory study of the foraging
strategy of ants.
B.S. Physics, Emory University,
M.S. Physics, The Ohio State University,
Ph.D. Physics, Duke University,
Postdoctoral work, University
of California at San Diego, 1990-1992.
Some Recent Papers
- G. W. Baxter "Cellular Automata Models of Granular Flow," Chapter 8 in Experimental and Computational Techniques in Soft Condensed Matter
Physics, edited by J. Olafsen (Cambridge University Press, to be published Sept 2010).
- G. W. Baxter and J. S. Olafsen, ``Experimental Evidence for Molecular Chaos in Granular Gases," Physical Review Letters 99 (13 Jul 2007).
- G. W. Baxter and J. S. Olafsen, ``The
Temperature of a Vibrated Granular Gas,''
Granular Matter (12 Aug 2006).
G. W. Baxter and J. S. Olafsen, ``Robust
Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics in Driven Granular Gases,'' Nature 425, p 680 (16 Oct 2003).
G. W. Baxter and C. Yeung, ``The Rotating
Bucket of Sand: Experiment and Theory,'' Chaos 9 (3), pp 631-638
G. W. Baxter and K. M. Hagenbuch,
`` A Student Project on Wind Chimes: Tuning in to Standing waves,'' The Physics
Teacher 36, pp204-208 (1998) (Cover Story)
Note that the author's photographs are reversed.
G. W. Baxter, ``Stress Distributions in
a Two-dimensional Granular Material,'' In: Powders and Grains 97,
edited by Behringer and Jenkins, Balkema, 1997.
G. W. Baxter and R. P. Behringer, ``Density
Effects in Cellular Automtata Models of Granular Materials,'' In: Powders
and Grains 97, edited by Behringer and Jenkins, Balkema, 1997.
J. H. Hegseth, G. W. Baxter, and C. D.
Andereck, ``Bifurcations from Taylor Vortices Between Corotating Concentric
Cylinders,'' Physical Review E 53, pp507-521 (1996).
M. Vavrek, and G. W. Baxter, ``Surface
Shape of a Spinning Bucket of Sand,'' Physical Review E 50 (5):R3353-3356
R. P. Behringer and G. W. Baxter, ``Pattern
Formation and Complexity in Flowing Sand,'' In: Granular Matter ---
An Interdisciplinary Approach, edited by A. Mehta, Springer-Verlag,
G. W. Baxter, R. Leone, and R. P. Behringer,
``Experimental Test of Timescales in Flowing Sand,'' Europhysics Letters,
V21, N5, pp. 569-574, February 1993.
G. W. Baxter, K. D. Eaton, and C. M. Surko,
`Eckhaus Instability for Traveling Waves,'' Physical Review A 46
My Useful Webpages
I enjoy bicycling and juggling (not
at the same time).
I have been growing orchids since 1986
and am past-president of
the Orchid Society of Northwestern
Pennsylvania. I am particularly
interested in cool-growing orchids
such as Masdevallias and
I am also very interested in Scottish
Country dancing. I hold a teaching certificate from the Royal Scottish
Country Dance Society (issued Spring 1999).
Dr. G. William Baxter
Penn. St. Univ., Behrend College
Office: (814) 898-6251
Mail suggestions and complaints regarding
subject material to "gwb6 at psu.edu".